Geographical Structure

Natural Divisions

The new Bhojpur districts consists of three sub-divisions, viz., Ara Sadar; Jagdishpur and Piro comprising 14 development blocks stretching over an area of 2,37,526 hectors. The entire strip of land between the river Ganga on the north and the main line of Eastern Railway on the south is low laying deposits of silt from the Ganges almost every year and is extremely fertile. In fact, this region is considered to be the best wheat-growing area in the state of Bihar .

The district has rivers running almost three sides-North, East, and some part of Southern boundary. The Ganges forms the northern boundary of the district. The low-lying rich alluvial plains in the north-eastern and owe their fertility to the river Ganges. The rivers Chher and Banas fall into the Ganges .

The Sone is another important river in the district. The Sone enters the state of Bihar at the tri-junction of Palamu (Jharkhand), Mirzapur (U.P.) and Rohtas( Bihar ). It runs along the southern and eastern boundaries of the district of Bhojpur until it merges in the river Ganges near Maner in Patna district.

According to the District Statistical Report. There 1244 villages in the district out of which 251 are non-residential and 993 residential. There are 228 Panchayats and 12 revenue circles, 6 Town areas, 22 Police Stations, 5 Sub-Police Stations, 1 Railway Police Station, 7 Out-Post-Police Stations in this district, This report also provides the information about Post and Telegraph, which is as follows :

In this district, there is one G.P.O. situated at the district headquarters Ara. There are also 41 Sub-Post Offices, 3 Addl, Departmental Post Offices, 252 Addl. Departmental Sub-Post Offices. Altogether 989 villages are covered by these Post Offices. The number of Telegraph Centers in 35 in the district of Bhojpur.

Climatic Conditions

The climate of the district is of moderately extreme type. The hot weather begins about the middle of March, when hot westerly winds begin to blow during the day. The months of April and May are extremely hot. In a normal year, the monsoon sets in by the third week of June and the rains continue with intermissions till about the end of September or the early part of October. The cold weather begins from the month of November and lasts till the beginning of March January is the coldest month when temperature comes down as low as 10 degree centigrade. From the month of April till the first break down of the monsoon, the district experiences occasional thunder-storms also.

Rain Fall

Rains set in June accompanied by a fall in temperature and increase in humidity. The district experiences maximum rains during the months of July and August. The average rain-fall, in the normal conditions, recorded in these months is in the proximity of 300 mm. The district gets easterly winds from June to September, which brings rains, From October the direction of the winds is reversed and westerly winds blow till May. There is slight rainfall in October, but November and December are quite dry. Some winter rain occurs in January and February.

Irrigational Facilities

The river Sone and Ganges are the perennial sources of surface water. They can provide irrigation to major portion of agricultural lands. In the “Pre-Zamindari Abolition” days the Zamindars used to maintain “Ahars” and Pynes” which served the purposes of both irrigation and drainage in certain pockets of the district. Ordinary wells also used to be a good source of irrigation.

The District Statistical Report published by the District Administration in the 2001, 15,493 hectors, and land is irrigated by big Sone canals, 14,940 hector, land is irrigated by middle Sone canals and 18,379 hectors, and land is irrigated by small canals. 2,582 hectors, land is irrigated by Govt. Electronic Tube wells and 2,099 hectors, of land is irrigated by Govt. Tub wells operated by diesel. The area of land irrigated by private Electric Tube wells is 8,263 hectors. And 16999 hectors of land is irrigated by diesel operated private Tube wells 58,586 hectors of land irrigated by other sources or irrigation like Ahars, wells and ponds etc. Thus this statistics shows that 1, 77,341 hectors of land out of 2,37,526 hectors of land of total area is irrigated . It means 74.66 % land of the district is irrigated.

Land Use Pattern

In this district both the irrigated and un-irrigated areas except the small hills are being exploited for cultivation. Even some of the large ponds and “Jhils” which were duck-shooting areas have been de-watered and put to crop and grows “Boro crops”. Intensive agriculture is also being attempted by what is popularly known as “Package Program”. The Block Development Authorities are also trying to extend cultivation and improve the output. The remodeled Sone Canal System has the objective of bringing in more land under cultivation. Horticulture is spreading and orchards are springing up of all parts.

The District Statistical Report published by the District Administration of Bhojpur in the year of 2001 shows the area of different crops production i.e. Paddy-1,05,155 hectors, Wheat-67,259 hectors, Maize- 2,779 hectors, Barley-1,154 hectors Gram-5,017 hectors Peas-2,016 hectors, Arhar-919 hectors Masur-8,115 hectors Khesari-8,989 hectors Oil seeds (Sarso) 2,866 hectors Spices 31 hectors Vegetables 5,119 hectors, Fruits 2,651 hectors and Sugar cane 209 hectors.

This report also published the data of the rate of production, which is provided to the district administration by the State Directorate. It states the rate of production different crops per hectors as follows:

“Paddy (High yielding irrigated)-3502 Kg. per hectors. Paddy (Locally irrigated) -3330 Kg per hectors, Wheat (High yielding irrigated)-2725 Kg per hectors. Wheat (High yielding un-irrigated)-2707 Kg. per hectors Masur-1047 Kg. per hectors Khesari-986 Kg. Per hectors. Oil seeds (Sarso) 679 Kg. per hectors and Gram 937 Kg. per hectors.


After bifurcation of the old Shahabad district in the new district of Bhojpur and Rohtas the large scale industries generally fell in Rohtas district. There are, however, different types of small & cottage industries other than some agro-based industries located in the district of Bhojpur.

The District Statistical Report shows that between Apr-1992 and Aug-2000, 1085 small tiny and cottage industries were registered with the District Industry Centre, Bhojpur. Altogether the capital invested in these industries is Rs-869.19 Lacs. and 1858 persons are employed in these industries. There is an industrial area located at Gidha (Koilwar) spread in an area of 30-40 acres of land under the Patna Industrial Development Authority. A bottling plant of Indane Gas (LPG) is also started in this area. The development of industries depends on the regular supply of power but the district gets very short supply of the electricity against the required energy. The industrialization of the district badly hampered due to this problem

Mines and Minerals

Mines and minerals resources in new Bhojpur district are very little. The only mineral product in this district is the sand from Sone river. About 40 Kms. length of Sone river forms the part of southern and eastern and eastern boundary of the district of Bhojpur. The only managed sand – collecting centre is Koilwar, which is about 5 Kms. strips. About 35 Kms length is not properly managed to gather the sand.